Bali Query

March 29, 2017

29-3-17

Jake Brumby was alert one morning last week, when this very odd Indonesian Consular Corps passed him in  traffic.    iPhone at the ready, he grabbed this shot.

Expiry being apparently in the 68th. month of 2001 leads you to the suspicion that this false-plate maker doesn’t know a lot about his subject!   Or is it something NEW?(RI)(cc)_CC_ DK 68-01_BMW.Ubud2017JB

 

Usually, Indonesian Consulars are thus:

where 12 is the US embassy and 22 indicates that the driver is 22nd. in line for the Big Job if it ever becomes free.   His plate ran out of tax  in July 2012.

(RI)(cc 92~-USA)_CC 12 22_cu_VB

But regional Consulars are  coded for their locality which in this case is the DK  code for Denpasar, the BALI capital.   42 tells us that there is a Mexican consulate there, and 01 would be the Consul himself.     Not a bad posting!

(RI 92~).Bali(cc-MEX)_DK 42 01 CC_2008VB

Maybe they run out of consular volunteers sometimes and pull in a few Honorary Consuls, because Indonesia makes a special plate for them……

(RI)(cc honcon 77~)_L 980 CC_cu_ITvb

and before the thin tin plate design commenced years ago, the original Netherlands Indies designs were in use, and show the family history.

(RI)(cc honcon 62-77).Jakarta_B.7178 K CC_comp_mb1970sVB

Note also how cameras have improved since the 1960s!

The country sports some of the most baroque military and police plates in the world, and because it’s a laid-back place, the cops don’t mind you photographing them.    Try this in Moscow!

(RI).Bali(pol)(mc)_XI 14-115_cr _2008VB

Roman numerals, indeed!

 

And what did Mr. Karel Stoel have to say about the Spice Islands?    Plenty – including BA-439

Sumatra West – on another of those Auburns which Jean-Emmanuel found in Guadeloupe!

(RI 20-62)(IN).Sumatra west_BA-439_plKS

(Guad 20s-52)_3162 1930s Auburn.jec.jpg

Next – notes from a banana republic….

 

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Singapore 2013 checkover

April 19, 2013

SINGAPORE

April 2013.

Singapore’s plates continue as shown in RPWO and a wide variety of colours and codes are enough to keep a keen spotter occupied for some long time.     Two of the outer islands have been allocated their own plates – Sentosa and Ubin – and these cannot be used on the ‘mainland’ of Singapore.      If they must go over there, for repairs etc., they will carry SGP trade plates for the journey.

Sentosa’s colourful plates have been known to us since about 1998.

(SGP3)(Sentosa)(mc)_RU 1115Y_VB_resize

This Vespa RU 1115 Y is one of few two-wheelers registered on Sentosa.     Brumby archive 1987.

RU 2424 Z is the Restricted Use plate for Sentosa Island, a hundred metres off Singapore's coast.

RU 2424 Z is the Restricted Use plate for Sentosa Island, a hundred metres off Singapore’s coast.    Brumby archive 1987

The Sentosa Development Corporation, whatever that is, has a few buses, which are allowed on and off the islet, and have a special SDC code issued!

SDC 26 M is one of the island buses, registered on the 'mainland'     Brumby archive

SDC 26 M is one of the island buses, registered on the ‘mainland’ .              Brumby archive 1987

 

UBIN

But we have only recently become aware of the special plate colour given to the few vehicles on Pulau Ubin (Ubin Island), which is a mile off the North-East coast of Singapore, by Changi airport.     The island is lightly populated by fishermen and kampong farmers and has completely escaped the rapid advance to the six-star first-world status now enjoyed by the Republic of SGP.     There are about ten mopeds on Ubin, of which half still work and about 15 minibuses, which carry the islanders and some of the weekend visitors along the narrow island roads to various camping sites and hiking/cycling trails, for which Ubin has become a popular, rat-race getaway.

(SGP3)(Ubin)_PU 4 P_VB2013_resize

The fourth motor vehicle registered on Ubin Island is a Honda moped, still in running order, PU 4 P.                                             Brumby archive 2013

(SGP3)(Ubin)_PU 104 J_cuf_VB2013

One travels to Ubin by bum-boat, for 3 ringgit ($1US) which takes fifteen people at a time on old vessels which you would not expect to be still in service, but which are the pride and joy of their rough-looking but friendly owners.     Since registrations started on Ubin, perhaps in 2000, and originally only for a few small motorbikes which had previously run plateless, about 135 total registrations have been made, of which perhaps 15 to 20 remain in use.    The system is that of the Singapore mainland, using the PU area code, a serial number (current highest 137) , and a check digit, all in white on a pea-green background.

One of the island minibuses, PU 102 P.     Brumby archive

One of the Ubin island minibuses, PU 102 P.                       Brumby archive 2013

PU 130 H is just seven off the highest number on Pulau Ubin, the. latest minibus being PU 137.      Note that all the plates are properly made, even though this island is quite primitive.... Brumby archive

PU 130 H is just six off the highest number on Pulau Ubin, the latest minibus seen, being PU 137.       Note that all the plates are properly made, even though this island is quite primitive….
Brumby archive 2013

There are a few special purpose vehicles on Ubin, such as Police Land-Rovers and a couple of biggish lorries for construction jobs, and as these are there temporarily, they retain their normal Singaporean plates.

QX 5045 K is a standard Singapore police plate, coded by the QX.    This is one of two allocated to the island - surely an easy posting for the island coppers!      Brumby archive

QX 5045 K is a standard Singapore police plate, coded by the special code QX. This is one of two allocated to Ubin island – surely an easy posting for the island coppers!                               Brumby archive 2013

 

Singapore Specials

The SGP government is sponsoring experimentation in clean/non-emission vehicles and has allocated a dedicated ‘Research and Development’ numberplate to the handful of cars being tested on the island.

A Renault experimental electric car RD 3073 K, one of two seen at the Renault distributor in SGP.  Brumby archive

A Renault experimental electric car RD 3073 K, one of two seen at the Renault distributor in SGP.   April 2013.                                    Brumby archive 2013

RD 6096 A is carried on a Mitsubishi minicar and has a 100km range, recharging 80%  in 20 minutes.   It says here.     Brumby archive.

RD 6096 A is carried on a Mitsubishi minicar and has a 100km range, recharging 80% in 20 minutes.   It says here.         Brumby archive 2013.

There may be up to 50 vehicles on test, each of which is connected by wifi signal to a central office, in which its location, performance, battery-condition, range etc is transmitted every 5 seconds for analysis.

This category uses such high numbers that they must be split in some way, perhaps the first two or three numerals indicating a code for the few participating bodies in the experimentation.    Certainly there are not more than a hundred of  these low-emission category vehicles in the whole country, so 6096 seems optimistic….

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

It is of mild interest to note that Singapore vehicle owners can choose for themselves whether they plate their vehicles with the original silver/white on black plates, fore and aft, or Euro-style black on white (front) and yellow (rear).     About 20% favour white on black, I estimate.

Light goods vehcle codes seen here with both plate colour options.     Brumby archive

Light goods vehicle code G seen here with both plate colour options.         Brumby archive 2013

TR – Singapore trailers are now up to TRE, having exhausted TR and  TRA to TRD.

Another unusual SGP variant is the recently-adopted orange background to distinguish lorries wh.ich carry hazardous cargo, such as fuel and chemicals.     These cannot enter tunnels and need to advise police and fire when they need to access certain zones of the island.   The Y starter letter tells us that the truck exceeds 3 tonnes unladen; the M is serial.      Brumby archive.

YM 942 S – Another unusual SGP variant is the recently-adopted orange background to distinguish lorries which carry hazardous cargo, such as fuel and chemicals. These cannot enter tunnels and need to advise police and fire when they plan to access certain zones of the island.    The Y starter letter tells us that the truck exceeds 3 tonnes unladen; the M is serial.        Brumby archive 2007.

SH – Taxis have progressed to SHA, SHB and now to SHC.

SHA 5376 H is the Singapore Hire code with suffix serial A, on a typically smart, clean, new car, a credit to the taxi fleets.    Brumby archive.

SHA 5376 H is the Singapore Hire code with suffix serial A, on a typically smart, clean, new car, a credit to the taxi fleets.         Brumby archive 2013.

New private cars are up to SKJ, having jumped SH (kept for psv’s) and SI (‘I’ never used) and having presumably used up SJA-Z (though not seen).

 

Odd Chauffeur-drive/Private Hire possiblity.

We have believed that the special series for hire cars, SZ and SZA, had been long abandoned.   But now e find SZA 8 R, from the  current series on a chauffeur-driven/livery Mercedes, outside the Copthorne Waterfront hotel.   When questioned the driver claimed it was just a standard plate issued alphabetically in the normal series, but we know that Singapore is nowhere near 'S' inits alpha issue.   So perhaps there are a few (note this is only car 8) special-category registrations continuing to use the SZ prefix.     This was the only example seen.     (Brumby archive 2013)

We have believed that the special series for hire cars, SZ and SZA, had been long abandoned. But now we find SZA 8 R, from the current series, on a chauffeur-driven/livery Mercedes, outside the Copthorne Waterfront hotel. When questioned, the driver claimed it was just a standard plate issued alphabetically in the normal series, but we know that Singapore is nowhere near ‘SZ‘ in its alpha issue.      So perhaps there are a few (note this is only car 8) special-category registrations continuing to use a version of the old SZ hire/rental prefix.   (This was the only example seen.)    Brumby archive 2013

Here is SZ (Singapore Rental-Hire) carried on a new Toyota in 1968, seen at Singapore docks.     Brumby archive 1968

Here is SZ (Singapore Rental-Hire) carried on a new Toyota in 1968, seen at Singapore docks.                       Brumby archive 1968

680224 3 _4532TT25 at docks_resize

The only other SGP hirecar plate I ever saw was on this Vauxhall Victor, SZ 1779, also at the docks in 1968, alongside the Peugeot 4532 TT 25 which we drove back to Britain over four months.         Brumby archive 1968

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

A very rare sight in Singapore is the semi-diplomatic plate allocated to foreign technical aid personnel.    TE is the suffix code for these ‘Technical Expert’ vehicles and this BMW 525 example is coded 36 for the Philippines.

S 3682 TE is a semi-diplomatic plate for foreign technical aid personnel.   Brumby archive

S 3682 TE is a semi-diplomatic plate for foreign Technical Experts personnel.   36 is used by the Philippine embassy.         Brumby archive 2012

The Consular Corps variant is also hardly-seen, but Taiwan had code 66 in this category (photographed there in 1993, so possibly not current).

Taiwan's mission code 66 seen on a Volvo given Consular, rather than diplomatic recognition, presumably due to pressure from PRC to sideline the territory they hope to recover some day.     Brumby archive.

Taiwan’s foreign-mission code 66 seen on a Volvo 240, given Consular, rather than Diplomatic recognition, presumably due to pressure from PRC to sideline the Formosa territory they vainly hope to recover some day.        Brumby archive 1993.

Motorcycles exhausted their two-letter FA-FZ prefix codes some time ago and current registrations, for every size of  2-wheeled bike, has re-started from FAA…..     Note that, against the trend, SGP still requires a front plate to be displayed, either double-sided along the front mudguard or a forward-facing plate adhering to the faring.

Examples of motorbike front plate mounting positions.    Brumby archive

Examples of motorbike front plate mounting positions.     Brumby archive 2013

The current motorcycle format now uses two serial letters, the leading F, designating 2-wheelers.    Brumby archive

The current motorcycle format now uses two serial letters, the leading F, designating 2-wheelers.                          Brumby archive 2013

There is an auxiliary police orce,it seems, but they use normal private m/c plates.  FBA 6232 B.     Brumby archive.

There is an auxiliary police force,it seems, but they use normal private m/c plates, as FBE 5246 A.                              Brumby archive 2013.

The author’s first visit to Singapore was in 1966, when the vast majority of the vehicles were made in Britain, from motorcycles to double-deckers.     I still enjoy finding the leftovers from that period and recognise that many owners are very proud of their cars, which are now collectors’ items!

A well-restored MG TC sporting the special, low-tax plates of the approved vintage and veteran cars and bikes in Singapore.    SCL 69 D is a normal registration issue, and it is the plate colour which gives the privileged status.    Brumby archive.

A well-restored MG TC(?) sporting the special, low-tax plates of the approved vintage and veteran cars and bikes in Singapore.    SCL 69 D is a normal registration issue, and it is the plate colouring which gives the privileged status.                                Brumby archive 2008.

 

Singapore Historic

 

About 1960, many British Army, Navy and Air Force personnel served in Singapore and it was a period of very heavy registrations, as most  purchased a car there or duty-free at home, to take out.    This Austin A40 Farina belonged to a Wing-Commander, whose daughter June, modelling here, now dwells in Ottery St, Mary and makes jam for the W.I.     Brumby archive.

SS 9806.   A plate from the former series.       About 1960, many British Army, Navy and Air Force personnel served in Singapore and it was a period of very many new registrations, as most of them purchased a car there – (or duty-free at home, to take out and register there).    This Austin A40 Farina belonged to a Wing-Commander, whose daughter June, modelling here, now dwells in Ottery St, Mary and makes jam for the Womens’ Institute.                Brumby archive-June Harvey.

Finally, a photo which has materialised recently is certainly worth display.     Here is Singapore’s eighth car looking as  if it had just come off the ship from the Britton* motor factory in England.    Unusually for a British territory, Singapore used a dash or dot separator from inception to the mid-1930s; S-8 favours the dash.      The driver was known in those times, out east, as a syce – an archaic term for a horse-carriage driver/groom, which carried on into the age of the car.

*I can find no reference to the Britton marque after a quick search……..

S-8, among the very first automobiles to reach the Straits Settlement of Singapore, in 1911.    anon.

S-8, a Britton, among the very first automobiles to reach the Straits Settlement of Singapore, in 1911.     (No details seems to survive of this marque.)                   anon.

...and to conclude, another elegant car from another of the Straits Settlements, Penang no. 64n, the car of the Chief of Police there in the early 1900s.     June Bennett

…and to conclude, another elegant car from another of the Straits Settlements, Penang no. 64n, the car of the Chief of Police there in the early 1910s.     It may be a Stutz Bearcat.                       June Bennett

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~


Seychelles

April 10, 2013

SEYCHELLES

 

Never one to shirk La Dolce Vita,  my plate-researcher’s soul was ever  drawn to warm, safe places and I felt  it could be left to other, bolder members to deal with Chechnya, DRC, CAR, North Korea, Nigeria and New Guinea.   In modern times, Mr Ralidis appears as a heroic figure, who chances life and limb to snatch plates from the jaws of  cruel zones such as Iran and Pakistan.    A medal may one day be his.      The islands of the Indian Ocean always seemed to appeal on hedonistic  grounds, and save, now,  for the marauding bandit sea-pirates off the Somali coast, it remains one of the world’s fine zones.

British Airways catapulted me to Mahé Island, and to the capital village, Victoria in 1991.     For a tiny place,  it had a pleasing variation of plates, designed after the style of the British, who controlled the islands from 1903 until independence in 1976, when they fell under the stultifying spell of Russian communism.    From the first cars there, about 1937, straightforward white/silver on black plates with an S prefix followed by up to four serial numbers were, and remain, the normal private series (though now using five-digit serials).

Most plates were properly made, but here is a painted variant.    Brumby archive

Most plates were properly made, but here is a painted variant. Brumby archive

S 234 is a plate from the Mas collection

S 234 is a plate from the Mas collection

Seychelles permits retention of voided numbers and low numbers are always re-used.    Brumby archive

Seychelles permits retention of voided numbers and low numbers like S 5  are always re-used.    Motor cycles use normal car plates, but smaller.         Brumby archive

Musician/Beatle George Harrison had invested in a grand hotel project with Peter Sellers and others on Mahé – and in the British rowing town of  Henley-on-Thames, where he lived, near my home, I saw his gold Rolls-Royce Corniche  convertible on Seychellois plates AND sporting an SY oval – clearly a souvenir of the islands which he had had flown home!     Sadly no photo – he was driving the other way – and George was no slow driver!   Among his many quick cars was one of the first V12 6-litre F1 McLaren streetcars.

Taxis carried normal plates, supplemented by this specially-manufactured Hire Vehicle plate with its unique authorising number.     Brumby archive

Taxis carried normal plates, supplemented by this specially-manufactured Hire Vehicle plate with a unique authorising number.       Brumby archive

Seychelles Government employ a serial from the national series, on black, using a G prefix.    Brumby archive..

Seychelles Government plates employ a serial from the national series, on black, using a G prefix, removable when withdrawn from service..    Brumby archive..

Government vehicles used the same series, but with a red background, repainted black when sold in to private use.    Brumby achive

Parastatal (semi-government) vehicles used the same series, but with a red background, repainted black when sold in to private use. S 1537.  Brumby archive

(SY1)(para)_S 8333_VB1991_resize

Diplomats plates were also taken from the main system, but yellow-backgrounded, and with CD or CD appended to the plate in a random way.    Brumby archive

Diplomats’ plates were also taken from the main series, but yellow-backgrounded, and with CD or CC appended to the plate in a random way.   S CD 6266.   Brumby archive

Uncoded CD 2046 CD

1991. Uncoded Seychelles Diplomatic Corps  S 2064 CD

the less-fequently-sen Consulat variant, CC S 1884.    Brumby archive

The less-frequently-seen Consular Corps variant,                 CC S 1884.       Brumby archive

the very rare sight of a UN variant UN S 6993 is characterised by a green background - a change from UN Blue!

The very rare sight of a CD  UN variant UN S 6993 is characterised by a green background – a change from UN blue!     Brumby archive.

A handful of motor dealers exist on Mahé island only and use test plates to legally move untaxed vehicles.    What a fine plate!      Brumby archive

A handful of motor dealers exist on Mahé island only and use red  Seychelles  Test plates to legally move untaxed vehicles.    What a fine plate!      Brumby archive

end…


West Africa – Cameroons

February 7, 2013
This Renault 750 from the (French) Trusteeship of the Cameroons was an unusual sight in the 1950 Britain, and probably France, too. 3703 C 2 carries the correct 1932-1954 oval and uses the French-designed  registration format.   John Pemberton archive.

This Renault 750 from the (French) Trusteeship of the Cameroons was an unusual sight in 1951 Britain, and probably France, too.    3703 C 2 carries the correct 1932-1960 oval TC and uses the original French-designed registration format.       John Pemberton archive.

(RUC2a)(TC)_CM2938_comp_VB1960s

c. 1962     The British Cameroons, until  then part of British Nigeria,  amalgamated with the French Trusteeship in 1961, to form the new,  independent country of  Republique Unie de Cameroun.     For a while, it seems that cars from both the former Cameroons  used the long-lived TC oval, as witness CM 2938, from the British sector, in London’s Bayswater during the early 1960s, on a Ford 105E Anglia.      The ‘ TC ‘ had been overpainted on a formally pressed ‘ WAN ‘  oval and this example was the only one ever seen in UK – (unless YOU know otherwise!).      (VB)

(RUC2)(CAM'60-84)_2281C5_comp_VB1960

1960      With no change to  the 1932 series of  (up to) four numerals, a C and a serial number – came a change of  International Code, to CAM.    This Fiat 1500 sports was  seen in Juan les-Pins in 1960.   (VB archive)

Below:

Another change of Oval is seen on Fiat 850 W 2326 A, found in Middlesex in 1963.   W was the regional code for West Cameroun (Buea); the RFC abbreviation was presumably for République  Fédérale  de Cameroun, but has not been officially recognised.     Classic stencilled French plates of the period at the rear….       (VB)

(RUC3)(RFC'73-85)_W2326A_(r)_comp1963_VB
(RUC3)(RFC'73-85)_W2326A_f_VB1963

1970s:

This Camerounian consular corps Datsun, attached to the US embassy, lived briefly in Swiss Cottage, London during the 1970s.   Brumby archive

c. 1970     This Camerounian consular corps Datsun IT 9175 CC, attached to the US embassy, lived briefly in Swiss Cottage, London, during the 1970s.        Brumby archive

‘IT ‘  was the abbreviation of Importation Temporaire, whereby such medium-term visitors to the country as Consular, Diplomatic and Technical Aid/NGO personnel and others, could enter their vehicles to the country free of import and local duties, on the understanding that they were to be re-exported at the end of tour.   Failing that, duties became payable and normal plates issued to the car.   When the vehicle was attached to an embassy or consulate, CD or CC was added as a suffix.    Other temporary imports used simple IT and up to four numbers.

Some vehicles chose a blue background , particularly in the CM former British sector. Luoma archive.

Some vehicles arbitrarily chose a blue background , particularly in the CM former British sector.    Luoma archive.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

NOTES

Cameroun ALMOST  holds the record for the territory which has used the greatest number of International Ovals

TC, CAM, RFC, RUC and now CMR

But Congo (Leopldville)  just pips Cameroun, with CB, RCL, CGO, ZR, ZRE,  and now DRC, (which, somewhat tongue-in-cheek, uses the ‘ D ‘ to refer to a political system not yet adopted by that country –  though might possibly, in the forthcoming centuries…)


Current St. Lucia (WL)

February 3, 2013

Roger Kimbell has returned from the island today with two nice shots for our delectation:

The British High Commissioner has a smart Land Rover Discovery with a cherished Dip. plate!

St. Lucia - British H.C. 2013.   CD 1.

St. Lucia – British H.C. 2013. CD 1.

(WL)(cc)_748_VBrk2013

Previously un-noted St. Lucia Honorary Consul, with CC oval on normal plate. January 2013 – thanks to Roger Kimbell.

The four Windward islands seldom send cars off-island, and thus a sighting of an international oval WD/WG/WL/WV  is neccessarily rare.      The only photo of which I am aware is of this Mk. 2 Ford Cortina in Bayswater, London in the 1970s.    The owner must have visited the Automobile Association HQ in Leicester Square, and asked them to dig an adhesive plastic one out of a dusty drawer for him.

The only known WL oval on-car, in London 1970s.  Brumby archive

The only known WL oval on-car, in London 1970s.  Saint Lucia 2900.    Brumby archive


G di F trailer

April 19, 2012

Driving to Milan/Trezzo and back for the 2012 Europlate Meeting, a few odd sightings made me reach for my camera:   Here is the first Italian Taxation Police trailer I’ve ever seen, taken as a moving target on the autostrada, whilst driving at 85kph.     Still, it came out all right….

G di F trailer

Presumably for collecting the bigger taxation amounts?

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Stopping above Nice on the toll-booth rest area, was 116189 RS, my first of the 2002-onwards Tunisian Foreigner series – Régime Suspensif – ‘given to foreign workers who pay taxes monthly’.   (Don’t we all?)

Tunisian Foreigner series

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Dropping our Editor Paul at the Milan airport on Easter Monday, the less-common Italian Consular Corps plate was seen parked on a Kia 4wd:

Italian Consular Corps for South Korea (GM), at Malpensa airport, Milan, April 2012.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

The Mercedes Benz Museum at Stuttgart was an impressive visit, though few plates were of interest.

They have made a good facsimile of the Vatican plate borne by the first Popemobile which Benz supplied in the 1980s.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Though the Swiss don’t have vanity plates as such, it seems that one can obtain an interesting out-of-sequence tag:

NW = Nidwalden

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

In Calais I was surprised to find that the local fast-food joint was delivering their delicacies on Luxembourg-registered mopeds!

Long-distance Pizza?


use the new ‘blog’-EUROPLATEBLOG

August 10, 2010

The Belgian Congo/DRC has one of the longest lists of different international ovals, starting with CB during the Belgian administration and then, RCL, CGO, ZR and ZRE, to DRC today (in which the ‘D’ amusingly abbreviates the concept ‘Democratic!).     This RCL was photographed in Cannes during the early 1970s by VB on that great African car, the Peugeot 404.      The front plate was a normal, yellow on blue, pressed  ?Howoco? plate, but the rear plate had been lost and replaced by this well-painted version.

Does the Consular Corps oval suggest that Congo had not established a special plate series for Consular in those years?

One of many Congo ovals-RCL – Republic of Congo – Leopoldville (later Kinshasa)            Brumby archive

THIS IS WHAT WE CAN NOW DO!

Here is a new concept by means of which we can liaise with each other at will, on any subjects we choose.    A mail system between members, starting from the RPWO web site.

The (WordPress-hosted) blog site can also be set to allow outsiders to read our correspondence and to contribute comments if they please.    We might derive useful information or images from exposing our odd hobby to others!

Entries to a blog are kept permanently, in date order, enabling subjects to be re-visited if required – say, before adding new information.

Just log in here and write your first post!

That’s all!